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高考英语课本回归早读晚练16

早读:

Ⅰ.词汇短语过关

(旨在提供综合运用所需材料)

1. behave vt.&vi. 举动;(举止或行为)表现  behavio(u)r n. 行为;举止;习惯         

[典例]

1). Behave yourself; don’ t make a fool of yourself. 注意你的举止, 别闹出笑话来。

2). How is your new car behaving? 你的新车性能如何?

[重点用法]

behave oneself 使某人自己举止规矩                           

 behaviour towards/to... 对……的态度/行为  

[练习] 根据句子的要求在括号里填入适当的词或翻译。

1). It’ s hard to train children to _______ _______ (举止得体) at the table.

2). She is always _______ _______ (举止得体) at school.

3). Their _______ (behave) _______ (介词) me shows that they do not like me.

Keys: 1). behave well     2). well behaved      3). behaviour towards

2. achievement n.[c]成就,功绩  achieve vt. 取得,完成

[典例]

1). He received the Nobel Prize for his scientific achievements. 他因科学上取得的成就而获得诺贝尔奖。

2). Flying across the Atlantic for the first time was a great achievement. 首次飞越大西洋是一个伟大的功绩。

[重点用法]

achieve an aim / goal达到目标                                        

achieve success 获得成功

[练习] 根据句子的意思在括号里填入适当的词。

1). Without the support of the people we can _______ _______.  

2). I have achieved only half of _______ I hope to do.  

3). Congratulations to you          (介词) _______ such a complete victory. 

Keys: 1). achieve nothing    2). what    3). on; achieving

 

3. observe vt. 观察;观测;遵守  observation n.[u] 观察;观测;监视

[典例]

1). The police observed the man entering/enter the bank. 警方监视着那男子进入银行的情况。

2). The woman was observed to follow him closely. 有人看到那女子紧跟着他。

[重点用法]

observe sb. do sth. 观察某人做某事(已做完)                

observe sb. doing sth. 观察某人正在做某事       

under observation 被监视

[练习] 用括号内所提供词的适当形式填空或翻译。

1). They were observed ______ (enter) the bank then.

2). Keynes _______ _______ (观察到) humans fall into two classes.

Keys: 1). entering           2). observed that

 

4. respect vt.&n. 尊敬;尊重;重视 

[典例]

1). If you don’ t respect yourself, how can you expect others to respect you? 自己不自重, 又怎能受到别人尊重呢?

2). I have the greatest respect for you. 我非常尊敬您。           

[重点用法]

respect sb. for sth. 因某事而尊敬某人                                       

have / show respect for sb./sth. 尊敬某人/事

gain/get/earn/win the respect of sb. 赢得某人的尊敬                 

out of respect 出于尊敬

[练习] 根据句子的要求在括号里填入适当的词或翻译。

1). The new officer soon ________ (赢得) the respect of his men.

2). I ________ you ________ (因某事而尊敬) your honesty.

3). I have great respect _______ (介词) his ideas, although I don’ t agree with them.

Keys: 1). won/earned     2). respect; for     3). for 

5. argue vt.&vi. 讨论;辩论;争论  argument n.[c]争论;争辩;争吵

[典例]

1). Don’ t argue with your mother. 不要和母亲争辩。

2). I argued that we needed a larger office. 我据理力争我们需要大些的办公室。

[重点用法]

argue for (sb./sth.)为(某人/某事)而辩护  

argue against (sb./sth.) 反对某人/某事)而辩护

argue with sb. ( about/over sth.) 与某人(为某事)而争吵           

argue that... 主张……

argue sb. into/out of doing sth. 通过争论使某人做/不做某事  

have an argument about/over sth. 辩论某事

[练习] 根据句子的要求在括号里填入适当的介词或翻译。

1). We ______ ______ ______ ______ (说服她加入) us.

2). We argued _______ the waiter _______ the price ______ the meal.

Keys: 1). argued her into joining    2). with; about; of

6. support vt.&n. 支持;拥护;支撑;赡养;给予帮助﹑ 同情等的人

[典例]

1). Is this bridge strong enough to support heavy lorries? 这座桥禁得住重型卡车通行吗?

2). He was weak with hunger, so I had to support him. 他饿得没有力气, 我得搀着他。

[重点用法]

support sb./ a family 支持某人/ 赡养家庭                       

support sb. in (doing) sth. 在(做)某事方面支持某人

support sb. by (doing) sth. 通过做某事支持某人   

in support of sb/sth 支持或支援某人/事物

support oneself 自力更生                                                  

give support to sb. 支持、支援某人

[练习] 根据句子的要求在括号里填入适当的词或翻译。

1). Will you support me _______ (介词) my campaign for election?

2). Jim was a great support _______ (介词) them when their father died.

3). 我求学期间由父母供养。

___________________________________________________________________________

Keys: 1). in   2). to    3). I was supported by my parents when I was studying.

 

7. intend vt. 计划;打算  intention n. 意图,意向,目的

[典例]

1). I hear they intend to marry/intend marrying. 听说他们要结婚了。

2). I intend you to take over. 我打算让你来接管。

[重点用法]

intend to do/doing sth. = mean to do sth. 打算做某                  

sth. be intended for (某物)是为而准备的

intend sb. to do sth. 打算让某人做某事                                  

intend sth. as/to be 打算让某物作……用

intend that... 打算……

[练习] 根据句子的要求在括号里填入适当的词或翻译。

1). This book is ______ ______ ______ (是为初学者写的).

2). Was that remark intended _______ (介词) a joke?

3). I didn’ t intend her ______ (see) the painting until it was finished.

Keys: 1). intended for   2). as    3). to see

 

8. deliver vt.接生(小孩),递送,发表(演说)  delivery n. 投递  deliverer 递送者,交货人

[典例]

1). The baby was delivered in a clinic. 孩子是在一个医疗站接生的。

2). Comrade Yang delivered the opening speech. 杨同志致开幕词。

[重点用法]

deliver a baby 接生小孩;生小孩                                    

delivere sth. to ...... 把某物送到……   

express delivery快递

on delivery 送达时,货到时

[练习] 根据句子的要求在括号里填入适当的词。

1). Some new books have ______ (deliver) ______ (介词) the schoo1.

2). The actor _______ his speech _______ (介词) a soft voice.

Keys: 1). been delivered; to    2). delivered/gave; in 

重点词组  (旨在提供综合运用所需材料)

1. look down upon/on蔑视;瞧不起

[典例]

1). She looks down on people who've never been to university. 她瞧不起没上过大学的人。

2). You can’ t look down upon a person because he is poor. 你不能因为某个人穷而瞧不起他。

[重点用法] look短语:

look on sb./ sth. as = consider sb./ sth. as把某人看作                

look on 袖手旁观

look into sth. 调查或观察某事物                                               

look up 查阅(单词、资料);向上看   

look (sb.) up and down 上下打量(某人)                                   

look out for sb/sth警惕或留心某人/物

[练习] 根据句子的意思在括号里填入适当的词或翻译。

1). He was ______ ______ ______ (被人看不起) because of his humble background. 

2). He is ______ ______ _______ (被认为是) the leading authority on the subject.

3). If you want to know how a word is used, ______it ______ in a dictionary.

Keys: 1). looked down on    2). looked on as    3). look; up  

 

2. refer to 谈到;查阅;参考;查询;提及;指……而言   

[典例]

1). We agreed never to refer to the matter again. 我们同意不再谈这件事了。

2). She thought I was referring to her daughter when we were talking. 当我们谈话时她以为我指的是她的女儿。

[重点用法]

refer to sb./sth. as 把某人/物称作                                  

refer sth./sb. to 把某事提交;让某人向……求助 

[练习] 根据句子的要求在括号里填入适当的词或翻译。

1). Although she didn’ t mention any names, everyone knew who she was ______ ______(指).

2). He gave the speech _______ _______ _______ (没有参阅) his notes.

3). He likes to _______ _______ _______ _______ (被称为) “Doctor Khee”.

4). My doctor referred me _______ (介词) a hospital specialist.

Keys: 1). referring to   2). without referring to         3). be referred to as   4). to

  

3. come across = run across = meet by chance (偶然) 遇见;碰见     

[典例]

1). I came across an old school friend in Oxford Street this morning. 今天早上我在牛津大街碰见一位老校友。

2). She came across some old photographs in a drawer. 她在抽屉里偶然发现一些旧照片。

[短语归纳] come短语:

come about = happen 发生 

come from 来自

come out 出现;开花;出版或发表;透露;显出              

 come up 升起;发生;出现

come up with sth 找到或提出(答案﹑办法等)

[练习] 用come短语的适当形式填空。

1). I _______ _______ some new words while reading. 

2). His new book will _______ _______ next month.

3). She _______ _______ _______ a new idea for increasing sales.

4). Can you tell me how the accident _______ _______?

5). How did it _______ _______ that he knew where we were?

Keys: 1). came across   2). come out   3). came up with   4). came about   5). came about

 

4. carry on 继续;坚持

[典例]

1). Carry on (working/with your work) while I'm away. 我不在的时候, 要继续做工作。

2). They decided to carry on in spite of the weather. 他们决定不管天气好坏都坚持。

[短语归纳] carry短语:

carry on (doing sth/with sth.) 继续(做)某事                    

carry out 贯彻,执行

carry out a plan/orders/instructions执行计划/命令/指示           

carry sth through 成功地完成某事物

carry about随身携带

carry away运走, 使失去自制力

[练习] 根据句子的要求在括号里填入适当的词或carry短语。

1). They decided to _______ _______ in spite of the weather.

2). Extensive tests have _______ _______ _______ on the patient.

3). It is a difficult job but she’ s the person to carry it _______.

4). Don’ t blame me. I’ m only _______ _______ my orders.

Keys: 1). carry on    2). been carried out on   3). through   4). carrying out

5. live/lead a... life 过着……的生活

[典例]

They live a peaceful life. 他们过着平静的生活。

[短语归纳] “v. 同源宾语”结构:

smile a... smile 露出……微笑                              

dream a... dream 做了个……的梦               

sleep a... sleep 睡个……觉                                     

 sing a... song 唱……的歌

die a... death ……怎样地死去                  

fight a... battle 打……的仗

laugh a... laugh 发出……方式的笑声

[练习] 根据句子的要求在括号里填入适当的词或翻译。

1). We are living happily. = We are living _______ _______ _______.

2). _______ _______ _______ _______ (多么艰辛的生活) they lived!  

3). I _______ _______ _______ _______ (做了个美梦) last night.

Keys: 1). living a happy life   2). What a hard life  3). dreamed/had a beautiful dream

课文佳句背诵与仿写 (旨在培养对难句的理解和运用能力)

1.【原句】Following Jane’s way of studying chimps, our group are all going to visit them in the forest. 跟着简研究黑猩猩的路线,我们团队都去森林中探望他们。

 

 [模仿要点] 句子结构  现在分词, 主句

【模仿1】听取老师的意见,我在英语学习上取得了快速进步。

_______________________________________________________________________________

答案:Following the teacher’s advice, I made rapid progress in English learning.

【模仿2】按照指南,你一定会解决这问题。

_______________________________________________________________________________

答案:Following the instruction, you will surely solve the problem.

2 【原句】Only after her mother came to help her for the first few months was she allowed to begin her project. 只有在她的母亲来帮助她的头几个月,才让她开始她的计划。

[模仿要点] 句子结构:Only 状语(主句要倒装)

【模仿1】只有当您不遗余力你能取得重大进展。

_______________________________________________________________________________

答案:Only when you spare no effort can you make great progress.

【模仿2】只有当我们认识到我们生活环境的重要性,我们才能意识到保护环境就是保护我们的家。

_______________________________________________________________________________

答案:Only when we came to realize the importance of our living environment can we be aware of the fact that preserving nature is preserving our home.

易 错 点 拨 自我完善·误区备考

1. campaign / war / battle  

【解释】

war “战争”的总称,一般包括多个战役的大规模战争。

battle “战斗”,指有组织的武装部队之间的战斗,有持续几小时的,也有持续几天的。

campaign“战役”,指在某一地区所进行的一连串有固定目的的军事行动,规模比battle大;还用来表“政治或商业性的活动、竞选活动”campaign for/against 从事运动

 

【练习】根据句子的意思在括号里填入适当的词。

1). They won the _______ but lost the _______.

2). The city hall is planning to start a _______ against smoking.

Keys:  1). battle; war     2). campaign    

2. worth / worthy / worthwhile

【解释】

worth 只能作表语,其后接钱数、名词或及物动词的动名词的主动一般形式: be worth doing

worthy可作表语,后接of 名词/of 动名词的被动形式/不定式的被动形式: be worthy of n.

/ of being done / to be done

也作定语,“值得……的”,“有价值的”:a worthy winner名副其实的赢家

worthwhile可作表语和定语: a worthwhile job 值得做的工作 it is worthwhile to do/doing

 

【练习】根据句子的意思在括号里填入适当的词。

1). The necklace was ______ 100 francs at most.

2). It’ s ______ to discuss the question again.

3). You would find it ______ your while to come to the meeting.

4). Can’ t you find something ______ doing at all? The book is _______ _______ _______ (很

值得读) a second time.

5). This place of interest is worthy _______ _______ _______ / _______ _______ ______ /_______ _______ _______ (参观).

Keys:  1). worth     2). worthwhile      3). worth     4). worth; well worth reading

5). of a visit / of being visited / to be visited

3. argue / debate

【解释】

argue指某人坚持自己的主张,举出事实和理由说服某人或反对其他方面的意见。

debate指辩论者长在自己的立场公开争论一个问题。

 

【练习】根据句子的意思在括号里填入适当的词。

1). We ______ with her ______ how to go there.

2). They ______ the case for hours.

3). They ______ the question openly.

4). Last week, our class had a ______ over whether middle school students should carry cell phones at school.

Keys: 1). argued; about     2). argued      3). debated     4). debate

 

III 词性变化 (旨在提供语法填空所需材料)

1. connect vt.连接;联系;

接通电话 vi.连接,衔接

 connection n.联系,关

系;连接

2. argue vt.&vi.讨论;辩论

 argument n.[c]争论;争辩;

3. crowd n. 人群,群众;

v. 聚集;挤满;挤,推

 crowded adj.充(拥)满了的,拥挤的

4. inspire vt. 鼓舞;激发;

启示

 inspiration n. 鼓舞;灵感

 inspired adj.受灵感启示的inspiring adj.鼓舞人心的

5. considerate adj.体贴的,体谅的

 consideration n.考虑,要考虑的事;体贴

 considerable adj.相当大(或多)的

6. deliver vt.递送(邮件),接

生;生(小孩);发表(演说)

 delivery n.[c,u]投递;演讲

 deliverer 递送者

【练习】用括号内所提供词的适当形式填空。

1). It was ________ (consideration) of you not to play the piano while I was asleep.

2). The good news _______ (inspire) us with hope.

3). The children had an _______ (argue) about what game to play.

4). Please pay on ________ (deliver).

5). Taking everything into ________ (consider), the event was a great success.

6). The narrow roads were ________ (crowd) with holiday traffic.

7). What is the _______ (connect) between the two ideas?

Keys:  1). considerate        2). inspired   3). argument       4). delivery           

5). consideration      6). crowded    7). connection    

晚练: 自我测评·技能备考

Ⅰ.单词拼写

1.Devoted to the cause of education all her life, she was r_______________ by all the people in her country.

2.His first song was __________ by the memory of his mother.

3.The old man came in, with two young men______________ his body.

4.Swimming across the lake for the first time is a great a___________.

答案:respected;inspired;supporting;achievement

5.There's a c_____________ between smoking and heart disease.

6.Jane devoted herself to social _________(福利) work.

7.They work in an art ___________ (学院).

8.He is a __________ (专家) in history.

9.Do you know about the ________________ (组织)?

10.They started a ____________ (运动) to stop people smoking.

答案:connection;welfare;institute;specialist;organization;campaign

Ⅱ.单项选择

1.Business studies ______ a skill-based subject which ______ students' ability to use their knowledge.

A.is; test                B.is; tests

C.are; test                  D.are; tests

答案:B

解析:考查主谓一致。由句中a skill-based subject 可知business studies 指“一门学科”,谓语用单数;which 代替a subject,谓语也用单数。

2.Greatly ______,the students made up their minds to work at English even harder.

A.inspiring                B.inspired

C.having inspired          D.to inspire

答案:B

解析:考查非谓语动词。过去分词inspired 做状语,表示“受到激励”。

3.He argued ______ smoking, and insisted that it was ______ argument that smoking was harmful to health.

A.for; beyond                             B.against; over

C.for; over                             D.against; beyond

答案:D

解析:考查固定搭配:argue against 和beyond argument。

4.It struck me like lightning how difficult it must have been for a woman to get medical training so long ago when women's education was always placed ______ to men's.

A.better                                      B.worse

C.second                                    D.first

答案:C

解析:second to 意为“次于;亚于”。

5.______hit me all of a sudden ______ I had forgotten her birthday.

A.That; that                                B.That; what

C.It; that                                        D.It; what

答案:C

解析:句中it 做形式主语,真正的主语是that从句。

6.______ everything into consideration, she decided to work in Tibet.

A.Giving                                    B.Taking

C.Taken                                      D.Given

答案:B

解析:take...into consideration“考虑某事物,将……纳入考虑范围之内”为固定搭配,句中用现在分词taking做状语。句意为“考虑过所有的事情以后,她决定到西藏去工作”。

7.(2010·保定一中)Bought by his father and ______ to serve as his maid, the young girl fell in love with him.

A.intending                                B.to intend

C.being intended                        D.intended

答案:D

解析:考查非谓语动词。语意表示“这个女孩是他的父母买来打算给他当女仆的”,此处是intend sb to do sth的被动语态,用其过去分词作状语。注意,英语中一般不用现在分词的被动语态作状语。

8.It's difficult to ______ the discussion with all this noise around us.

A.carry about                                 B.carry on

C.carry off                                  D.carry away

答案:B

解析:考查动词短语。carry on “继续进行”,合题意。carry about 随身携带;carry off 夺走;carry away 拿走,掠走。

9.Lucy has ______ all of the goals she set for herself in high school and is ready for new challenges at university.

A.acquired                                 B.finished

C.concluded                               D.achieved

答案:D

解析:句意为“露西在高中已经实现了她为自己设定的所有目标,并准备在大学迎接新的挑战”。achieve one's goal/aim “实现某人的目标”。

10.For more information about the bidding, please______our official website London Olympics of 2012. com.

A.enter                                           B.drop in

C.refer to                                       D.call on

答案:C

解析:enter “进入(一空间)”,drop in“拜访”,refer to“参阅,查阅(图书、资料、网站)”,call on “拜访(某人)”。

11.When I was studying in England last year, my host family ______toward me like my own relatives.

A.treated                                    B.behaved

C.served                                     D.regarded

答案:B

解析:treat, serve, regard都是及物动词,后面不接toward。behave toward sb....意为“对某人态度如何”。

12.Is it ______ sparing some time for your hobby while your classmates are concentrating on their lessons?

A.worth                                         B.worthy

C.worthwhile                                 D.valuable

答案:C

解析:考查句型It is worthwhile doing/to do...。

13.—What's the matter? You really look down.

—______.

—Well, better luck next time.

A.Why, I always look up to you

B.I failed an important test

C.I have a bad cold

D.Me? I never look down upon anybody

答案:B

解析:考查交际用语。句中look down意为“看上去很失落”,而且由better luck next time可知选B。

14.(2010·云南师大附中)-______ he dropped out of school?

-His family had run into financial difficulties.

A.Why was it that                      B.Why was that

C.Why was that it                      D.Why was it

答案:A

解析:考查强调句的特殊疑问句。从语意和选项看,本题考查强调句的特殊疑问句。根据强调句的特殊疑问句的基本句型:特殊疑问词+is/was+it+that+句子其他成分可知,A项正确。

15.Only when ______ been checked ______ be allowed in.

A.has your identity; you will

B.your identity has; will you

C.your identity has; you will

D.has your identity; will you

答案:B

解析:考查only+when 状语从句(从句不倒装)结构中,主句倒装。

Ⅲ.阅读理解

A

Chinese high school students have the longest study hours compared to their peers(同龄人) in Japan, the US and the Republic of Korea, a survey conducted by the four countries said.

The survey, released by the China Youth and Children Research Center (CYCRC) on Monday, was jointly conducted with institutions in the four countries in September—October of 2008. It covers nearly 4 000 students in senior high schools and vocational high schools in the four countries.

About 78.3 percent of Chinese students said they spend more than eight hours at school and 56.7 percent said they study at least two more hours each day at home. By contrast, only 24.7 percent of their peers in the US, 20.5 percent in Japan and 15.4 percent in Korea study more than two hours after school.

Around 60 percent of all students surveyed said their burden for studies was the heaviest; however, the Japanese felt their burden was the worst with respondents(应答者) reaching 79.2 percent.

Among the five biggest headaches for young people in the four countries were: over-scheduling ranked first, followed by a boring leisure life, unsatisfied appearance, little time for exercise and making friends, and no spare money.

“Moderate(适度的) study pressure can better drive students to develop, however, too much will squeeze(挤) their development space, and can even cause harm to their physical and psychological health,”the survey said.

“Balancing their studies and all-round development is a very important task,”it said.

1.What would be the best title for the text?

A.ChineseHigh SchoolStudents Study More

B.High School Students Need More Rest

C.Heavy Burdens of High School Students

D.Big Headaches of High School Students

答案及解析:A。主旨大意题。本文是一篇新闻报道,英语新闻报道的主题一般都在第一段,因此选A项最佳。

2.Which of the following is NOT true about the  survey?

A.It took about two months.

B.It was conducted in four countries.

C.Nearly 4 000 students took part in it.

D.It was done only in senior high schools.

答案及解析:D。细节题。根据第二段It covers nearly  4 000 students in senior high schools and vocational high schools...可知D项表述有误。

3.Which of the following troubles the high school students most?

A.Being busy.

B.Feeling bored.

C.Lacking pocket money.

D.Feeling unsatisfied with their teachers.

答案及解析:A。推断题。根据第五段,中学生最头疼的问题中排在首位的是over-scheduling(时间安排太紧),由此判断A项正确。

4.According to the survey, ______.

A.study pressure is harmful to students' health

B.students need to achieve all-round development

C.the Chinese students felt their burden for studies was the heaviest

D.most students are suffering from physical and psychological health problems

答案及解析:B。细节题。根据最后一段,调查指出Balancing their studies and all-round development is a very important task,因此B项正确。

 

 

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